Image from Flickr via kkoshy


Thirty years have passed since journalists were cut off from Punjab, and Punjab from the world. In June of each year, Sikhs throng to gurudwaras to observe one of the most significant of their religious holidays. On this day, when even the less observant find their way to gurudwaras, the Indian Army attacked Darbar Sahib—the Golden Temple, the Sikh Vatican —and dozens of other gurudwaras across the state.

An estimated ten thousand never returned to claim their shoes from the entrance to the Darbar Sahib. That the exact number of civilian casualties remains unknown signifies precisely why June 1984 is relevant today. More so, in light of India’s May 2014 election and the fierce debates it raised about the status of India’s minority communities.

The army’s operation, code named “Blue Star,” began with the forced eviction of all foreign journalists from Punjab. This, coupled with a state-wide curfew enforced by soldiers, limited the documentation of the civilian experience. However, the people’s memory of these events has been preserved successfully.

The events come flashing back to anyone alive in Punjab in June 1984: shoot-on-sight orders to lock down an entire state’s citizenry.

Three decades after the attack on India’s 2 two percent Sikh minority, the events come flashing back not only to eyewitnesses and victim families, but anyone alive in Punjab in June 1984: shoot-on-sight orders to lock down an entire state’s citizenry for days hardly prevent (and in cases hasten) pregnant women needing delivery rooms; patients needing doctors; dead needing crematoria. One family relayed what they had witnessed on June 6, 1984 after finally receiving special permission from the Army to take their elderly father’s body to a crematorium: “stench of putrid and burning flesh… bodies had all been brought there by dust carts and from the number of carts; the attendant estimated some 3,300 had so far been cremated.”

The people’s counter-memory to the official narrative has been repeatedly validated, injecting longevity.

India Today opined, “Never before were the champions of civil liberties in India in such dire need of liberating themselves from the clutches of the law.”

In June 1984, even as the government closely orchestrated the return of foreign journalists a fortnight later for a special tour of the Darbar Sahib after a hurried clean-up, a young Associated Press journalist, who had managed to stay in Punjab during the attack, had already filed: at least 1200—twice the government’s number—deaths in Amritsar city alone, killings by close-range shots of Sikhs with their hands still tied behind their backs, and subsequent dumping of bodies into garbage trucks.

A year later, in 1985, Indian civil liberties group Citizens for Democracy and distinguished jurist V.M. Tarkunde published findings of “sadistic torture, ruthless killings…calculated ill-treatment of women and children.” As the Government banned the report and arrested its authors and publishers, India Today opined, “Never before were the champions of civil liberties in India in such dire need of liberating themselves from the clutches of the law.”

Why does public conversation about June 1984 sputter to a stall in Indian circles?

In 1995, anthropologist Joyce Pettigrew, having studied the killing fields of Punjab in 1992-94, summarized her fieldwork in Punjab: “The Army went into Darbar Sahib not to eliminate a political figure or a political movement but to suppress the culture of a people, to attack their heart, to strike a blow at their spirit and self-confidence.”

Last year, British documents, de-classified under a 30-year rule, revealed letters between Margaret Thatcher and Indira Gandhi revealing the latter’s plan for attacking Amritsar. Dated February 1984, these communications took place four months before “Blue Star,” long trotted out as an exigent army action due to unavoidable urgency.

And memory-keeping was a burden not even anticipated by the Sikhs, as world media stood outraged by the events. A “virtual massacre” reported The Guardian; “whole of Punjab…turned into a concentration camp” declared the Christian Science Monitor; and when the Indian government issued arrest warrants for AP’s journalist, the New York Times joined others in vociferous protests, asserting that his only crime was “doing his job too well.”

Despite all this, why does public conversation about June 1984 sputter to a stall in Indian circles? At most, it revolves briefly around the collateral of a firefight between the Army and Sikh leader Bhinderanwale’s men who put up a stiff fight for three days in Amritsar. Suggestions for greater truth-telling about civilian losses again render Sikhs as suspects, illustrating political and societal immaturity.

June 1984, and the subsequent anti-Sikh pogroms across India (organized post Indira Gandhi’s assassination), were followed ominously by the responsible Congress Party winning a national election victory. This landslide is still unprecedented in Indian history, May 2014 victory of another Party accused of pogroms notwithstanding.

Noting what happened after the June 1984 firefight highlights at least three legacies of June 1984 that are all the more relevant to India in 2014.

It is thirty years overdue to speak of those who slipped off their shoes for a moment of solace in a place of worship and walked instead to a brutal death.

First, the attacks in June removed forever the erstwhile barrier in the Indian psyche of attacking faith centers. “Nothing was sacred anymore, everything was permitted” wrote Ivan Fera in the Illustrated Weekly of India, 1984. This has been demonstrated since, perhaps most symbolically in the public destruction of a Muslim mosque in 1992, resurgent calls to build a Hindu temple on the land, and attendant riots. The Committee to “liberate” the land where the mosque stood was first convened in winter 1984.

Second, the attacks of June 1984 signaled to the nation that entire communities marked as ‘enemies within’ were undeserving of even humanitarian protection. The Red Cross was stopped just a few miles away from Darbar Sahib, ironically at the historic Jallianwala Bhag, site of the massacre of Punjabis struggling against British colonists in 1919, sixty-five years before facing Indian guns in Amritsar. Pilgrims trapped in the hostels on the eastern side of the Darbar Sahib complex, the other end from where Bhinderanwale and his men were lodged, were rounded up, seated in the courtyard and fired upon. “Many wounded were left to bleed to death,” wrote Amrit Wilson, in the New Statesman in November 1984. “[W]hen they begged for water, army [men] told them to drink the mixture of blood and urine on the floor. Four months later no list of casualties or missing persons had yet been issued.” This list has yet to be seen.

Third, the attacks of June 1984 sanctioned destruction of difference. Turbans, Sikh markers, were removed before killing and women were made to watch before they themselves faced emblematic violence—this received markedly more attention when it happened on the streets of Delhi in November 1984, the “ripping apart” of children and gang rape of women, as noted by Delhi-based human rights groups. Further, the Army’s burning of the Sikh Reference Library after the June firefight is held as an attack on Sikh psyche. The centuries-old, primary source documents that were housed in the building where no firefight ever took place remain shrouded in mystery even today: since June 1984, Sikhs have claimed—and a 2004 Indian Government revelation even quietly acknowledged—that the materials were taken by the forces and not destroyed, but also not returned as a marker of humiliation and attempt at erasure of heritage.

Refusing to speak about June 1984 has meant missed opportunities and acquiescing to dangerous trends. Even if the polity is not ready to honestly discuss the firefight between the combatants, it is thirty years overdue to speak of those who slipped off their shoes for a moment of solace in a place of worship and walked instead to a brutal death. When the children of 1984 begin to wake up from the parents’ nightmares, the parents of 2014 may learn to prevent future darkness.


Mallika Kaur

Mallika Kaur is a lawyer who focuses on gender and minority issues in the U.S. and South Asia. She has a J.D. from The UC Berkeley School of Law and M.P.P from Harvard Kennedy School of Government. She is volunteering with the 1984 Living History Project this 30th anniversary year.

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28 Comments on “Ten Thousand Pairs of Shoes

  1. One sided article which fails to mention the facts that the Vatican of the Sikhs had turned into a Fort Worth with enough arms to hold off an army for days. She fails to mention that murder of innocents inside the Golden Temple by the so called Sikh Militants. She also fails to mentions the murderous campaigns of Bhindrawala which necessitated this attack. A poorly written article at the best.

    1. So let’s see any pictures of those confiscated weapons and arms after the operation was over? Spoiler:- There are none.

      This was a well written piece. I appreciate the author for putting out plight of Sikhs out there. My dad had to go to Amritsar and identify some of the people from his village solely based on clothes that were all in a big pile. He was traumatized by such a sight, and couldn’t comprehend how a nation’s own army can let loose tanks on its citizens.

    2. Please tell us the reason behind the attack on all other Gurdware in Punjab. I was under the same infulence too. But when I learnt about most of the Gurdware being targeted in Punjab at the same time I felt ashamed of myself. Get your facts right before you speak.

  2. Thanks for this prescient and insightful article. The media and academic coverage of the events of 1984 have been and continue to be anti-Sikh, both in terms of what is included and what is omitted from the public record. We need a more sustained effort and bringing testimonies to light.

  3. Seems like my comments from yesterday got deleted, “Freedom of Speech”??

    Let me repeat again, the article is totally one sided. It calls the Golden Temple, the Vatican of Sikhs, but totally fails to mention that it was more like a military garrison in 1984. Heavily armed terrorists were inside carrying out murder and plunder.

    There is no mention of the events which necessitated this attack, the attacks on Hindus, dragging them out of buses and shooting them because of their religion, Moderate Sikhs, killed just because they did not subscribe to an extremist ideology and anybody else who caught their fancy. People were killed in the Golden Temple, in plain view of other pilgrims, because they were suspected of being with the police.

    Punjab is peaceful today, except for the minority few who want to rake up old issues just to come out of irrelevance. The bloody clashes in the Golden Temple show us once again how dangerous it is to let the temple become a sanctuary of extremists.

    1. I think your family wasn’t one of the victim . Ask the people who had suffered . Thousand of innocent people who were butchered by the Indian government hasn’t been mention in the past 30 years . Before knowing the history please don’t comment

    2. Its simple nonsense that sikhs killed was the govt itself wich carried such prrogram.84 to nineties a close to negligible num of hindus have been killed as compared to the sikhs.foryification of temple is not new n has been done earlier also.basicaslly it was to hurt sikh religon n its not difficult to find out that the sikhs have given a befitting reply to any one who tried to harm their believes fro the abt a hindu author who went to report after bhindraanwaale’s death and was escorted by the sikhs till he reached safe n sound.being non martial,depending on their numbers the hindus have tried to do harm to the sikhs.instead of this if they had put that much of effort in making their community brave,they wud have been respected all around the world

    3. Where is the FIR of those events. Not a single group took responsibility for the killings of hindus. And at that time movement had overwhelming support for the cause of dominion status of punjab . If you do not know what dominion status is go google it. Movement wasn’t realigious at all to begin with, it was for the rights of punjab which turned into religious movement by the constant propaganda by the then indian government. There was complete cencorship in shikh newspapers by indira gandhi, to make sure public do not know the truth about movement. sant bhindranwale never wanted the separate country go ask Dr Subramunium. If government attacks golden temple only then we demand separate country that’s what sant bhindranwale said. Even if for your arguments sake lets say that government had no choice, then what was the reason for sending CRPF on golden temple on three different occasions way before(many years) the operation. Sikh activists didn’t pick weapons till 1980. Before that it was nothing but peacefull civil disobedience for 30 years. But i guess i am saying this to someone who is hooked on goverment propaganda. Take your blinders off budd. And you shouldn’t accept government naratives. You should challenge them, ask questions.

  4. Great piece that reflects on 30 years of hidden genocide in the world’s largest democracy. How have the perpetrators managed to get away with it for so long and what should be done about it?

  5. No, ‘Libert At Large’, it isn’t one-sided or poorly-written, it is telling the truth. Nothing done by the militants beforehand justifies the vicious and callous actions of the army, police and paramilitary organisations, which resulted in a death toll dwarfing anything Bhindranwale or Babbar Khalsa were even capable of. Before Blue Star, Panjab was in a state of religious conflict similar to northern Ireland. The army attack turned this into something more like Bosnia. The article has the details, all of which are backed by numerous eye-witness accounts.

    And if you think this is a dead issue, you are wrong. Everyone in the Sikh community remembers Operation Blue Star. It is the defining moment of Sikh history post-independence. It will never be forgotten, just as Sikhs will never forget Ahmad Shah Abdali’s invasions or the Nankana Sahib massacre.

  6. I`m absolutely surprised & dismayed at the attitude of various Central Govts & the Akali Govt of Punjab to treat this issue so lackadaisically and prevent a closure in this very very sensitive matter. It is obviously with a sinister intent !

  7. Singh: We are talking about this article and not history in general.
    Where does the author mention the event leading up to this massacre.
    Where is the mention of atrocities committed inside the Golden Temple by the bloodthirsty followers of Bhindranwale?

    Comparing Punjab to Bosnia is ignorance at the best.
    Punjab was on the brink in the 1980s, dress codes were enforced on people, hairstyles were regulated, talibanization was a very real danger then(though the taliban would do it a decade later)

    Punjab is progressing now, and will continue to do so.
    A few bigoted, power hungry, demented individuals will no longer hold it to ransom.

    1. If punjab is really progressing and if you really think people moved on. Then you are even more delusional than i actually thought. If punjab is really progressing then you dont need to keep reating it like a broken record. Do have some facts or some sort of surveys to back your claims what people really thought of it now.

      And by the way president Kennedy once said if you suppress peacful right to protest of people you sure are giving justification for peoples right to pick up arms.
      Not the exact quote but the same moral. Go look it up

  8. While recounting terrifying genocide of Sikhs in Punjab and Muslims in Kashmir, India never wants to give space to the minorities to live in India. Both the communities are not trusted and their moments are watched every minute as if minorities posses nuclear bombs, like goons who vandalized Babri- Masjid and Golden temple Amritsar. Sad state of affair on so called Indian democracy

  9. Liberty at Large: Your repeated attempts to discredit this author are plain to see for everyone.
    Atleast the author bothers to give a coherent rhetoric with some sources.
    You on the other hand are just commenting to further your propaganda.
    Reality and the bitter truth hurt. YOU are the demented individual you mention who is hurting society. Giving a minority closure is in no way equal to raking up an issue for personal gain.

  10. Mallika, this was a really nice article and reminded me not to forget. However most people that visit daily – especially those younger than 30 years and those who are not Sikhs have little idea of the horrific events of June and Oct 1984.

    The story reminded me of the holocaust memorial on the banks of the Danube in Budapest and I wonder if such a memorial would serve a good purpose if placed by the joda ghar in the complex

  11. Mallika, this was a really nice article and reminded me not to forget. However most people that visit daily – especially those younger than 30 years and those who are not Sikhs have little idea of the horrific events of June and Oct 1984.

    The story reminded me of the holocaust memorial on the banks of the Danube in Budapest and I wonder if such a memorial would serve a good purpose if placed by the joda ghar in the complex

  12. Mallika kaur, Thank you for reminding 1984 on june . You have supported with witness facts, numbers with honesty. Justice is not served despite of repeated promises by different governments and topic of atro ities and human right violations remain open till now.

  13. Why was that terrorist Bhindranwala allowed to hide in there? They murdered so many innocent people too. Have you written an article why he was allowed to hide there and use people as his shield?

    Operation Bluestar was led by an Army man who was Sikh himself. For them nation is above any religion, terrorist or a temple. Terrorism in Punjab was tackled by another Sikh Police Chief KPS Gill. So, stop writing these biased stories and do some research.

    Only sikhs who were either born outside India are the ones who complain. They are disconnected from the reality. They think that there is a Sikh genocide going on. Our last PM was a Sikh.

  14. The entire documentation by independent agencies of operation blue star is available on the net.which includes interviews with key players on both sides.History gets manipulated by hysteria which refuses to through those painful days reminds me of the sad fact that it was the Sikhs amongst us who were responsible for everything that happened & the cowards who proclaimed they were guardians of the faith were the ones who turned our temple into a fortress of sacrilege.

  15. Excellent article. The only little solace after the horrific, disturbing events of 1984 is in reconnecting, sharing and keeping the memory alive. You are spot on when you mention Sikh psyche being singled out. The removal of Sikh books and scriptures from the Sikh Reference library is an example of that. ‘Ripping apart’ of children, gang rape of women, burning alive of people – all under institutional mandate – are acts of a country with a savage instinct. I am deeply disturbed and would like to say that India is indeed a third world country. Not because of poverty but because the beast goes back to its savage instinct over and over.

  16. Any civilized country wouldn’t send an army on a day when thousands of devotees & pilgrims are celebrating a day to pay homage to their Guru, who was martyred on the same day four centuries back. Why wouldn’t be diplomacy used to either delay or negotiate a surrender of a defending group. The answer lies in arrogance of Indira Gandhi who earlier than this episode put the country in an emergency mode for several years to usurp power.
    Worst still the peaceful agitation for Punjab’s rights was suppressed violently before this episode, Inorder to safeguard the movement, Bhinderanwalla moved his headquarters inside the precincts, but away from the actual temple, not for armed struggle but a peaceful continuation of the agitation. State is totally responsible for bringing a violent end. Liberty at large is a government spokesman, never agreeing or apologizing. Sad !!

    1. This was very well planned by scheme of things planned by indra to win the majority votes. All the central agencies were fully involved and they were creating all lawlessness so as people may look forward to devi ma (Indra) as their savior. I was kidnapped in broad day light in front of Crpf personal and they just didn’t take any action.
      This was vote strategy of Indra along with hearting Sikh psych

  17. The 1984 Sikh Genocide was totally planned, organized and executed by the Rajeev Gandhi led congress government and leadership. That is why the congress government never made any effort to punish the guilty involved in innocent killings. And Rajeev Gandhi openly protected and rewarded the guilty congress leaders. The worst thing is that the Indian majority supported the innocent killings by rewarding Rajeev Gandhi led congress with the largest majority in the Parliament elections. Modi and BJP leadership learned from that killed thousands of innocent Muslims in 2002. And the Hindutava majority has been rewarding Modi with election victories. The sad thing is that Hindutava majority is letting political parties and leaders to play communal card and kill innocents to win elections. None of the guilty Hindutava persons involved in communal innocent killings are being punished in India.

  18. The Sikhs as a people had no choice and no voice, that why they are under constant attack from 1947 onward.

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